The specific goals that we want to explain in today’s article are to be familiar with the fundamental concepts of automotive mechanics, identify the components involved in the operation of a vehicle, clearly establish the systems that make up the vehicle, and distinguish the fundamental differences between them.
If we have more or less certain notions internalized about the automotive mechanics of our car, not only will we understand the reactions of our vehicle, but we will also have a much more developed instinct of prevention since we will be aware of the components that are involved in the march.
If we have more or less certain notions internalized about the automotive mechanics of our car, we will understand the reactions of our vehicle.
At this point, a car is made up of a frame on which several components are mounted.
These components include the engine, clutch, gearbox, transmission, steering, front and rear suspension (with its bridge), exhaust, and brakes.
The body and its components are attached to this frame in various ways. The entirety of this building block is referred to as the chassis.
The framework, also known as the chassis, is made up of two longitudinal members and several steel cross members formed into a U-shape and welded together.
Therefore, by taking on a variety of shapes, with the sole intention of providing sufficient resistance, it will be able to withstand the stresses, deformations, and vibrations that it will be subjected to.
At the moment, the majority of today’s automobiles have their bodywork reinforced to the point where it also assumes the role of a portion of the frame or chassis.
Together, they present a more significant challenge and emphasize teamwork!
The transmission and creation of movement is the primary goal of automotive mechanics, which is a fundamental aspect of any mechanical traction vehicle.
In addition, it investigates and assesses a few of the different components of the car, such as the engine, which is the primary character and is in charge of supplying the vital force for the movement of the vehicle.
In addition to that, it is also accountable for the investigation of the clutch and the gearbox.
The latter is significant because it enables the driver to control the motion transmitted from the engine to the wheels. This is an essential aspect of the vehicle.
On the other hand, the gearbox is the component of the car that interacts with the reels to circumvent the obstacles that prevent the vehicle from moving forward.
Automotive mechanics is a subfield of mechanics that, in a nutshell, is the type of mechanics that is fundamentally responsible for studying and analyzing how the movement of a vehicle is generated and transmitted.
In addition, automotive mechanics is the subfield of mechanics that has as its main objectives the inspection, diagnosis, and repair of all kinds of vehicles and machinery, so it is considered a multidisciplinary branch.
A vehicle consists of a frame on which various components are mounted and the car as a whole.
The term “chassis” refers to the combination of all of these parts, and it is on this that the bodywork and accessories are mounted.
Next, we will talk about the fundamental components of this block that you ought to be familiar with.
Out of all the features that come together to form the chassis, we will focus on the eight mechanical components that are the most crucial to the operation of the vehicle’s motion. Take note!
It is the primary component that supplies the energy necessary for the vehicle’s operation.
The transmission assembly transfers the rotation it generates to the wheels, allowing the car to move.
The engines used in automobiles (except the electric ones) are examples of the internal combustion.
This means that the fuel required to turn the motor is burned within the engine.
In this context, the engines require a feeding system that delivers the fuel (gasoline) to the device’s interior to burn it.
Engines that run on gasoline have an ignition system that involves a spark in various cylinders.
This spark causes a detonation, which in turn causes the expansion of gases, which causes the engine to rotate.
In addition, the engine is made up of several different metal parts that rotate or slide against one another.
A lubrication system can be considered a thin film of oil placed between two metal surfaces to reduce the amount of friction that exists there and thus prevent wear and tear.
Therefore, the engine is the most critical component for the movement of any vehicle; however, the components that we will examine in the following section work in conjunction with the engine to accomplish the primary objective of automotive mechanics, which is to cause movement in the vehicle.
For this task, the friction and adhesion characteristics of certain materials (friction disc) are used to achieve the rigid union between the engine and the wheels.
The primary function of the clutch is to transmit the rotation of the motor to the wheels.
It is said that the machine is engaged when there is a linkage (meaning that you are not stepping on the clutch), but when there is no linkage, it is said that the engine is disengaged (you step on the grip).
As a result, we must understand that the clutch is a decoupling device that uses a friction disc.
Because the transmission of motion between the engine and gearbox is disrupted when the driver operates the pedal, you will notice that the car goes out of control when you step on the clutch.
This is because there is no longer any connection between the engine and the wheels as a result of the friction disc being decoupled.
It is connected to the engine, and as a result, the machine provides support for the gearbox while the clutch sits in between the two.
It is a mechanism that alters the rate of rotation transmitted to the wheels manually (via the gearbox) or automatically (via the differential). As a result, the speed of the movement is changed.
To adapt the engine’s power to the driving requirements, it is composed of gear trains that provide reductions that are more commonly known as gears or speeds (first, second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth).
To put it another way, the shorter gears (first and second) offer a lower top speed but a higher total power output, whereas the longer gears (third, fourth, fifth, and sixth) provide a higher top speed but lower total output.
It is best to illustrate it with two prominent examples: Because we need more power to climb a slope, we will shift down into lower gears.
If we don’t, we won’t be able to conquer the hill.
On the other hand, if we want to increase our speed while driving on the highway, we will use longer gears because they allow us to travel at a faster rate while the terrain does not require us to exert as much force (because it is flat).
As its name suggests, the transmission is a bar or tube that, in the case of the traditional arrangement, transmits the movement that is determined by the gearbox to the rear axle. In other words, the transmission is exactly what its name suggests.
The information is made up of universal joints and sliding splines.
The universal joints allow the message to adapt to the different alignments of the axle with the gearbox, which is why they are called universal joints.
The sliding splines will enable the transmission to absorb the length variations caused by oscillations.
The front-wheel drive transmission is located on one side of the engine, and from the gearbox, it goes directly to the axles that give propulsion to the front wheels.
On the other hand, the transmission for the rear-wheel drive is located behind the engine, and it requires a drive shaft to move the rear wheels.
Keeping in mind the transmission, the differential is the component responsible for transferring the rotation coming from the engine to the wheels accountable for the traction (rear or front).
Regardless of the specifics of the automobile, everyone is equipped with a differential; a four-wheel drive vehicle, such as an SUV, has two differentials.
Do not be surprised if you see differentials with various designs; their purpose is still the same, which is to manage the rotational force that is transferred from the engine to the wheels responsible for traction.
In addition, the differential helps to correct the turning differences that occur between the wheels.
It is common knowledge that when a vehicle takes a turn, such as a curve, one of the wheels will travel further than the other.
This is the situation in which the differential helps correct the difference in pitch or rotation between the wheels.
In a nutshell, the primary purpose of a differential is to transfer the cycle transmitted from the gearbox to the wheels responsible for traction and compensate for any pitch differences.
The design of the braking system allows the driver to stop the vehicle whenever they choose simply by depressing the brake pedal.
This is made possible by operating the various components that make up the system.
The fundamental principle behind how the system works is relatively straightforward.
When the driver presses the pedal, the transmission of forces through a fluid amplifies the pressure that the driver applies, allowing them to bring the vehicle to a stop with as little effort as possible.
The brake system is comprised of three subsystems: the first is the one that is in charge of braking the vehicle during regular operation; the second is the auxiliary or emergency system that is used in the event of immobilization or failure of the central brake system; and the third is the anti-lock braking system (ABS), which prevents the wheels from locking and skidding when braking.
As a result, we can turn the vehicle while it is braking, which reduces the risk of serious accidents
As a general rule, the primary purpose of the steering system is to enable the driver to alter the course of the vehicle simply by turning the steering wheel.
The direction in which the front wheels are facing can be changed by using the control on the steering wheel.
The steering system configuration comprises the steering wheel, a steering column, joints, and steering gear; these components all need to work in unison for the system to operate effectively.
However, the steering system can be affected by factors external to the vehicle, such as the tires’ unstable grip on the asphalt.
The springs and shock absorbers that make up this system are positioned and sandwiched between the wheel axles and the frame or chassis.
The primary function is to protect the other components by preventing them from moving or receiving sudden shocks, both of which could cause internal damage caused by irregularities in the terrain.
This is accomplished by acting as a barrier between the other components and the kinks in the landscape.
In other words, to stop these irregularities from being transmitted to the bodywork, the tires will absorb them if they are small enough. This will keep the bodywork from being damaged.
Off-road vehicles are characterized by having much longer suspensions than compacts due to the mountainous irregularities they must negotiate.
Therefore, if it were shorter, it would severely damage the components we have just described because of countless crashes. This will help us understand the concept of suspension a little better.
¿Did you like the content?